The implementation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) technology is becoming more widespread as countries are establishing ADS-B mandates to enhance and extend the surveillance capabilities of their Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems.
Twelve countries have added new rules that mandate ADS-B for aircraft operating within specific regions, classes of airspace or airways. In some countries, these rules go as far as to require the aircraft operator to obtain approval from their State Registry to access the ADS-B airspace.
Other regulations create a specific benefit to operators that have equipped voluntarily. The regions where ADS-B are mandated will continue to expand, and operators should monitor for updates from their local regulatory authority.
ADS-B replaces or supplements radar surveillance of aircraft. Aircraft equipped with an ADS-B transmitter use GPS technology to locate the position of the aircraft and then transmits identification, position, altitude and velocity information in real time. Air traffic controllers intercept this flight and traffic information services broadcast data and are able to position and separate aircraft with improved precision and timing.
ADS-B relies on a high-integrity GPS navigation source and a data link (ADS-B unit). There are several types of certified ADS-B data links, but the most common ones operate at 1090 MHz – essentially a modified Mode S transponder – or 978 MHz.
This technology consists of "ADS-B Out" and "ADS-B In." ADS-B Out is the transmission of data; ADS-B In is the reception of this information. All aircraft equipped with ADS-B can transmit data, but not all are capable of also receiving data.
Benefits to the aviation industry:
Additional benefits to aircraft with ADS-B In capabilities:
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: ADS-B capability required for all flights operating at or above FL290.Airservices Australia
ADS-B OUT capabilities are required if the operator intends to take operational advantage in ADS-B airspace, as currently defined by Nav Canada as the Hudson Bay region and the northeast coast of Canada.NavCanada
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642 and M771 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Sanya Flight Information Region (FIR).Civil Aviation Administration of China
ADS-B equipage is mandatory for aircraft registered in Fiji that are operating in controlled airspace.Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642 and M771 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Hong Kong FIR. Effective Dec. 8, 2016: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Hong Kong FIR.Civil Aviation Authority of Hong Kong
Isavia continues to expand its network of ADS-B ground stations and is providing services to aircraft equipped with ADS-B.Isavia
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642, L644, M753, M771, N891 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Singapore FIR.Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
LFV Aviation Consulting of Sweden has already implemented an ADS-B network based on VHF Data Link (VDL) Mode 4 technology.CLFV Aviation Consulting
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways B576 and B591 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Taipei FIR.Civil Aeronautics Administration of Taiwan
The United Arab Emirates has implemented a network of ADS-B ground stations.UAE General Civil Aviation Authority
Effective Jan. 1, 2020: All aircraft operating above FL180 require ADS-B Out capability on 1090MHz. In preparation for this, the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has begun installing a network of ADS-B ground stations.U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L625, L628, L642, M765, M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Ho Chi Minh FIR.Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam
Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L625, L628, L642, M765, M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Ho Chi Minh FIR.International Civil Aviation Organization
Operators planning to fly within regions where ADS-B is mandated must be equipped, unless specifically authorized by local authorities. The ATC flight plans must indicate the aircraft's capabilities in item 10b.
The ATC flight plan must contain one of the following codes:
Unless specifically authorized by local authorities, operators of non-equipped or with unserviceable ADS-B equipment should not plan to operate within these regions or on specified airways. Failure to do so could result in the flight being held down to a lower altitude or rerouted.
With advancement in aviation technology the use of systems such as ADS-B will become more prominent during the next few years. The regions that mandate equipage and use of such systems will continue to expand so operators should continue to monitor for updates from their local regulatory authority.
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The information provided is based on current information at time of publication and may be subject to change.
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