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Recent Alerts and Information

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Global Transition to ADS-B

The implementation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) technology is becoming more widespread as countries are establishing ADS-B mandates to enhance and extend the surveillance capabilities of their Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems.

Twelve countries have added new rules that mandate ADS-B for aircraft operating within specific regions, classes of airspace or airways. In some countries, these rules go as far as to require the aircraft operator to obtain approval from their State Registry to access the ADS-B airspace.

Other regulations create a specific benefit to operators that have equipped voluntarily. The regions where ADS-B are mandated will continue to expand, and operators should monitor for updates from their local regulatory authority.


What is ADS-B?

ADS-B replaces or supplements radar surveillance of aircraft. Aircraft equipped with an ADS-B transmitter use GPS technology to locate the position of the aircraft and then transmits identification, position, altitude and velocity information in real time. Air traffic controllers intercept this flight and traffic information services broadcast data and are able to position and separate aircraft with improved precision and timing.

ADS-B relies on a high-integrity GPS navigation source and a data link (ADS-B unit). There are several types of certified ADS-B data links, but the most common ones operate at 1090 MHz – essentially a modified Mode S transponder – or 978 MHz.

This technology consists of "ADS-B Out" and "ADS-B In." ADS-B Out is the transmission of data; ADS-B In is the reception of this information. All aircraft equipped with ADS-B can transmit data, but not all are capable of also receiving data.

Benefits of ADS-B

Benefits to the aviation industry:

  • Improved situational awareness
  • Improved visibility for air traffic controller and flight crew
  • Increased safety due to more accurate position reporting
  • Greater efficiencies in handling aircraft in congested airspace

Additional benefits to aircraft with ADS-B In capabilities:

  • In-cockpit traffic information from other aircraft equipped with ADS-B
  • In-cockpit weather information using Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) ADS-B equipment
  • In-cockpit terrain data
  • In-cockpit flight information

Current and Future ADS-B Requirements by Country

Australia

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: ADS-B capability required for all flights operating at or above FL290.

Airservices Australia
Canada

ADS-B OUT capabilities are required if the operator intends to take operational advantage in ADS-B airspace, as currently defined by Nav Canada as the Hudson Bay region and the northeast coast of Canada.

NavCanada
China

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642 and M771 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Sanya Flight Information Region (FIR).

Civil Aviation Administration of China
Fiji

ADS-B equipage is mandatory for aircraft registered in Fiji that are operating in controlled airspace.

Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji
Hong Kong

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642 and M771 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Hong Kong FIR. Effective Dec. 8, 2016: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Hong Kong FIR.

Civil Aviation Authority of Hong Kong
Iceland

Isavia continues to expand its network of ADS-B ground stations and is providing services to aircraft equipped with ADS-B.

Isavia
Singapore

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L642, L644, M753, M771, N891 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Singapore FIR.

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
Sweden

LFV Aviation Consulting of Sweden has already implemented an ADS-B network based on VHF Data Link (VDL) Mode 4 technology.

CLFV Aviation Consulting
Taiwan

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways B576 and B591 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Taipei FIR.

Civil Aeronautics Administration of Taiwan
UAE

The United Arab Emirates has implemented a network of ADS-B ground stations.

UAE General Civil Aviation Authority
USA

Effective Jan. 1, 2020: All aircraft operating above FL180 require ADS-B Out capability on 1090MHz. In preparation for this, the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has begun installing a network of ADS-B ground stations.

U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Vietnam

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L625, L628, L642, M765, M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Ho Chi Minh FIR.

Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam
Other Resources

Effective Dec. 12, 2013: All aircraft operating at or above FL290 on airways L625, L628, L642, M765, M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B capabilities while within the Ho Chi Minh FIR.

International Civil Aviation Organization

ADS-B Updates

Flight Planning

Operators planning to fly within regions where ADS-B is mandated must be equipped, unless specifically authorized by local authorities. The ATC flight plans must indicate the aircraft's capabilities in item 10b.

Item 10b

The ATC flight plan must contain one of the following codes:

  • B1 - ADS-B with dedicated 1090Mhz ADS-B Out capability
  • B2 - ADS-B with dedicated 1090Mhz ADS-B Out and In capabilities
  • U1 - ADS-B Out capability using UAT
  • U2 - ADS-B Out and In capabilities using UAT
  • V1 - ADS-B Out capability using VDL Mode 4
  • V2 - ADS-B Out and In capabilities using VDL Mode 4

Non-equipped aircraft

Unless specifically authorized by local authorities, operators of non-equipped or with unserviceable ADS-B equipment should not plan to operate within these regions or on specified airways. Failure to do so could result in the flight being held down to a lower altitude or rerouted.

Conclusion

With advancement in aviation technology the use of systems such as ADS-B will become more prominent during the next few years. The regions that mandate equipage and use of such systems will continue to expand so operators should continue to monitor for updates from their local regulatory authority.

For more information use the links below or call the Colt International Trip Support department and ask to speak with the on duty Flight Operations Specialist

The information provided is based on current information at time of publication and may be subject to change.
Please contact your Colt Trip Support specialist for assistance and services.

Colt is ready. We want you to be ready too.

Effective November 15th, 2012 ICAO will be implementing changes to the format of the ICAO flight plan.

The changes will require that more specific flight and aircraft detail be delivered to the ATC and in a new format. The main concern though is: how will this affect you?

The most extensive changes affect Item 10 (equipment) and Item 18 (other information). To the right, you can see the ICAO changes in red. According to the FAA, these are the major items to make note of:

  • Additional alphanumeric qualifiers that reflect enchancements to operational capabilities in ground-based and satellite-based navigation and surveillance equipment. The new qualifiers cover equipment for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C), and Controller Pilot Data Link Future Air Navigation System (CPDLC-FANS), as well as several other qualifier additions and deletions.
  • Significant changes to Item 18 (other information), including formatting, indicator definitions, specific grammar for special handling, and new qualifiers for Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigiation Performance (RNP).
  • Specific format for aerodromes not listed in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
  • Delay (DLA), Change (CHG), Cancel (CNL), and Arrival (ARR) message formats.

An added benefit to these changes is that you no longer have to file within a 24 hour period. You can now sleep at easy since you can now file up to 120 hours in advance.



Why are things changing now?

ICAO recognized the advancement of aircraft capabilities and the requirements of ATM systems that there was a need to update the methods for filing current flight plans. The goal of these changes is to better identify the newer communications and equipment while still accommodating the existing systems. This will arm the ATC with more detailed information in order to communicate properly with aircraft and assign the appropriate landing details, avoiding rerouting and delays.

These changes are also aimed at having a more unified, global approach to flight plans. The more consistent the filings become, the easier and more fluid international travel becomes, which will have a positive impact on all travel.

How can I prepare?

Practice makes perfect. The best thing you can do to prepare yourself and your crew is to get on board as soon as possible. Since July 15, 2012, plans have been accepted in the new format. It's not to late to start filing. This will allow you to work through any hurdles you may encounter with the new filing before it becomes mandatory. It will also ensure that if you are using a trip support provider, the provider will be prepared as well.

Even though Items 10 and 18 are affected the most, familiarizing yourself with the overall ICAO 2012 Filed Flight Plan amendment is the best way to prepare. Alternatively, your trip support provider should be prepared and able to ensure your compliance.


For more specifics about how these changes will effect you, visit any of these resources:

ICAO 2012 Updates to the FAA RNAV PBN codes

Effective August 2013, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) no longer requires operators to ATC file the FAA Area Navigation (RNAV) code in item 18 of the ATC flight plan (e.g. NAV/RNVD1E2A1). However, operators are still permitted to use the NAV/ designator to omit specific Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures.





For more information on PBN codes and ATC flight plan requirements please contact the on-duty Colt flight operations specialist or use the following links:

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The Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) Goes Global

Colt keeps you informed of new Global APIS developments

Initially only a US requirement, the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS), is an electronic data interchange system requiring commercial and private operators to submit crew and passenger manifests to Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) thirty minutes to one hour prior to departure to or from a foreign destination. The purpose of APIS is to identify potential threats and allow carriers to coordinate with foreign law enforcement to prevent the boarding of a person of interest.

International agencies including the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Mexico are now adopting APIS for General Aviation (GA). Other countries including Russia, the Dominican Republic, and China have implemented APIS or will do so in the near future. Government agencies for larger, high frequency countries such as Spain, Brazil, India, Costa Rica, Portugal, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia are expected to initiate APIS requirements as well.

Colt will keep you informed of new APIS requirements as they become available.

APIS Overview & History

APIS was developed in 1988 as a voluntary program between US Customs, the US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and the airline industry to collect data from passengers arriving in the US from foreign locations prior to departure. APIS became a requirement in February 2002.

With regards to corporate aviation, APIS requires Part 91 operators to submit APIS one hour prior to departure, and Part 135 operators to submit thirty minutes prior. Operators may file using the CBP eAPIS web portal or through a CBP-certified vendor.

All APIS submissions should be transmitted in UN/EDIFACT Passenger List Message (PAXLST) format, and must contain data for all passengers and crewmembers including full name, gender, DOB, nationality, travel document type, and country of residence.




Caribbean Community (CARICOM) APIS

The CARICOM APIS has been in effect since February 2007. Member states include Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago.

Filings are required for all Part 91 and Part 135 flights to or from CARICOM member states prior to arrival or departure (thirty minutes prior to departure for Part 91, fifteen minutes prior for Part 135).

CARICOM utilizes an eAPIS portal for required submission, or operators may use their service providers to handle their APIS transmissions.

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MEXICO APIS

Mexico has released a new regulation that now requires all aircraft to submit an APIS (Advanced Passenger Information System) manifest for all flights arriving into and departing out of Mexico.

Effective Dec. 31, 2013, the Mexican Government's National Institute of Immigration (INM) will begin enforcing the mandatory submission of APIS. In accordance with Article 46 of the Immigration Law, this new regulation applies to all commercial, non-scheduled commercial (charter), and private non-revenue operations. Non-compliance can result in fines up to $5,000 per day.

Colt's Trip Support team can assist you in complying with this regulation which requires completion of a detailed Excel file submitted prior to each flight with required information, such as departure and arrival airport IATA Code, passenger and crew names along with DOB and passport numbers for each. The completed file is submitted via a web portal, which Colt can submit on your behalf. We are working on a more efficient solution that will allow us to submit your APIS manifest direct to Mexico Immigration and will expedite the process.

Requirements

The spreadsheet requires the inclusion of the following information:

Flight Information

  • Name of airline
  • Airline Code
  • Airline representative Name
  • Phone number of representative
  • Fax Number (Optional)
  • Flight number
  • Departure Airport
  • Destination Airport
  • Date and time of departure
  • Date and time of arrival

Passenger and Crew Information

  • Name (Last name)
  • Name (First Name)
  • Gender
  • Date of birth
  • Country of residence
  • Port of embarkation
  • Port of landing
  • Country of birth
  • Transit Passenger (Passenger, Crew, Transit)
  • Nationality
  • Document Type
  • Document number
  • Expiration Date of the document
  • Country where the document was issued
  • PNR Number (Optional)

We will keep you updated as new information about the Mexico APIS regulation becomes available. Please contact us for assistance with your next trip to Mexico.

Resources

For further information, please find contact information and links to the National Institute of Immigration's Official Notification, Excel File Template and eGov Portal User Guide below:

Contact the Mexican Government: apisicm@inami.gob.mx

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Colombia APIS Now Required

Colombia has implemented a new regulation that now requires the submission of an APIS (Advance Passenger Information System) manifest for all flights arriving into and departing out of Colombia.

Entered into Colombian Law on April 14, 2015, the Colombian Department of Immigration (Migración Colombia) has now begun enforcing the mandatory submission of APIS. As stated in Article 8 of Colombia’s Immigration Resolution 022, the new regulation applies to all commercial, non-scheduled commercial (charter), private non-revenue, cargo, military and air ambulance operations. Non-compliance can result in penalties and legal action.

World Fuel | Colt Trip Support can assist you in complying with this regulation that requires completion of a detailed Excel file submitted prior to each flight with required information, including:

  • Departure and arrival airport IATA Code
  • Passenger and crew names
  • DOB and passport numbers for each passenger and crew member

The completed file is then submitted to Colombia Immigration, which World Fuel | Colt can submit on your behalf. Additionally, according to Article 14 of the regulation, before you can submit your APIS to Colombian authorities, all operators must register with Migración Colombia’s SIRE (System Information to Report Foreigners). Registering provides you with your user ID, password, airline code and unique email address. World Fuel | Colt can assist in the registration process on your behalf.

Requirements

The API spreadsheet information requirements include:

Flight Information

  • Airline name
  • Airline code
  • Contact name
  • Contact phone number
  • Airport of origin
  • Airport of destination
  • Time and date of departure
  • Time and date of arrival

Passengers and Crew

  • First name
  • Middle name
  • Last Name
  • Gender
  • Date of birth
  • Place of origin
  • Place of destination
  • Country of birth
  • Function in the crew
  • Nationality
  • Type of ID
  • ID number
  • Date of expiry of ID
  • Country of issuance of ID
  • Number of bags

We will keep you updated as new information about the Colombia APIS regulation becomes available. Please contact World Fuel | Colt for assistance with your next trip to Colombia.

Resources

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UAE APIS

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has introduced a new regulatory mandate that now requires the submission of an APIS (Advance Passenger Information System) manifest for all flights arriving into and departing out of the UAE.

The new mandate, first announced in 2012, is effective as of September 01, 2015 and is being enforced by the UAE’s General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA). The regulation applies to all national and foreign operators for all private non-revenue, commercial, non-scheduled commercial (charter), cargo, and air ambulance operations. Non-compliance will result in penalties from the UAE’s GCAA.

World Fuel | Colt Trip Support can assist you in complying with this regulation which requires the submission of API data, exclusively via the SITA hosted UAE API web-based system, which is to be submitted prior to each flight with required information, including:

  • Departure and arrival airport IATA Code
  • Passenger and crew names
  • DOB and passport numbers for each passenger and crew member

The API data can either be entered into the system by individual crew members and passengers, or via a batch API data file. Once all flight and manifest data is completed, it is then submitted to the UAE GCAA Government for vetting and approval, which World Fuel | Colt can submit on your behalf. Additionally, before you can submit your APIS to UAE authorities, all operators must register with GCAA’s API UAE Carrier Portal system. Registering provides you with your user ID, password and carrier code. World Fuel | Colt can assist in the registration process on your behalf.

Requirements

The API spreadsheet information requirements include:

Flight Information

  • Operator name
  • Airline IATA Code
  • Contact name
  • Contact phone number
  • Airport of origin
  • Airport of destination
  • Time and date of departure
  • Time and date of arrival

Passengers and Crew

  • First name
  • Last Name
  • Gender
  • Date of birth
  • Country of birth
  • Nationality
  • Type of ID
  • ID number
  • Date of expiry of ID
  • Country of issuance of ID

We will keep you updated as new information about the UAE APIS regulation becomes available. Please contact World Fuel | Colt for assistance with your next trip to the UAE.

Resources

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Ease the complexity of EU ETS compliance.

The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a mandatory regulation requiring CO2 emissions monitoring and reporting of all non-commercial aircraft operators operating flights to, from and within EU Member States.

Aircraft operators are required to register, implement and submit an emissions plan and data flow chart for approval. In addition operators are required to submit a verified emission report annually. This regulation presents a challenge to EU ETS compliance management.

Colt's experts help you simplify reporting complexities. Our team will guide you in developing a plan, walk you through the verification process and ensure you meet deadlines and compliance requirements.

Colt can offer you a better solution to meet EU ETS requirements. Contact our EU ETS department at (281) 280-2200 or email eu-ets@coltinternational.com.


What you need to know to be compliant.

Determine if you are on the EEA wide list of aircraft operators and assigned to a Member State with a CRCO Identification number. If not you will need to compete a Fleet List Declaration form and submit it to the European Commission prior to your first trip to the EU.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32013R0109:EN:NOT


Once assigned to a Member State there are four basic actions to complete to be compliant.

Colt's regulatory experts will manage these components, submitting information on your behalf when applicable and offering guidance along the way.

1. Get registered with your assigned Member State

Very extensive. Requires completing a two phase online application and a third phase of completing documentation that must be in most cases, certified, apostiled and post mailed to the Registry Team.

Colt will either become the minimum required Account Representatives for you leaving your operations only responsible to have one individual from your operations as an Account Representative, or will offer guidance along the way for your operations to complete the Registry Account setup on your own.

2. Aircraft Emissions Monitoring (AEM) Plans

An Aircraft Emissions Monitoring Plan and data flow chart must be submitted within eight weeks of being assigned a Member State. These plans must be completed strictly following the guidelines as well as national regulations of your Member State.

3. Monitoring and Reporting

An Annual Emissions Monitoring Report must be submitted between 01 January thru 31 March each year for the previous years operations to, from and within the European Union. These reports must strictly follow the monitoring and reporting guidelines as well as national regulations of your Member State.

By uploading your flight log and European Navigation invoices into our system, our experts will:

  • Compile flight data, ensuring accuracy and building necessary Emissions reporting
  • Calculate all relevant fuel burn and emissions data
  • Ensure your reporting method is compliant to the assigned Member State requirements
  • Provide all necessary paperwork to an accredited verifier to compile and issue verification reports
  • Provide finalized report to your operations and submit them on your behalf when electronic or physical signatures are required for final ETS compliance

4. Purchase carbons from an approved carbon trader/broker

Between 01 thru 30 April of each year operators are required to purchase carbons to replace the carbons used from the previous years operations.

By completing and having the Aircraft Emission Monitoring Report verified an operator will know how many carbons will need to be purchased. Our experts will:

  • Provide contact information of approved carbon trader/brokers to allow setting up your account
  • Assist you along the way to ensure you have purchased the required carbons and surrendered/replaced them before the mandatory deadline date to avoid automatic fines by the assigned Member State

Helpful documents


EU ETS Updates



Offences and Penalties

The Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations 2009 and The Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations 2010 include the following Civil Penalties.


United Kingdom

Offence Penalties
Failure to submit or re-submit an application for an emissions plan.

Regulation 24 '2009 Regulations'
Regulation 33 '2010 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £500; and £50 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £4,500.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £1,500; and £150 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £13,500.
Failure to monitor aviation emissions

Regulation 34 '2010 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £500; and £50 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £4,500.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £1,500; and £150 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £13,500.
Failure to report aviation emissions

Regulation 35 '2010 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £1,250; and £125 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £11,250.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £3,750; and £375 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £33,750.
Making false or misleading statements

Regulation 36 '2010 Regulations'
£1,000 where a UK operator makes a statement which is false or misleading in a material particular in a report submitted under regulation 12.

£1,000 where a UK operator makes a statement which is false or misleading in a material particular in an application under regulation 16.

£1,000 where a UK operator makes a statement which is false or misleading in a material particular in a report submitted under regulation 21.
Failure to comply with the requirements of the Monitoring and Reporting Decision

Regulation 28 '2009 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £500; and £50 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £4,500.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £1,500; and £150 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £13,500.
Failure to comply with emissions plan conditions

Regulation 37 '2010 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £500; and £50 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice under regulation 30 (1) up to a maximum of £4,500.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £1,500; and £150 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice under regulation 30(1) up to a maximum of £13,500.
Failure to surrender sufficient allowances

Regulation 38 '2010 Regulations'
The sterling equivalent of 100 Euros for each allowance or project credit that the aircraft operator failed to surrender.
Failure to comply with information notices

Regulation 39 '2010 Regulations'
For a failure before 1 January 2012 - £500; and £50 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £4,500.

For a failure on or after 1 January 2012 - £1,500; and £150 for each day that the application or resubmission of an application is late following the service of a notice… up to a maximum of £13,500.
Failure to provide assistance and advice

Regulation 40 '2010 Regulations'
£50,000 where an aerodrome operator fails to provide reasonable assistance and advice, contrary to regulation 47.
Failure to comply with a direction relating to an operating ban

Regulation 41 '2010 Regulations'
£50,000 where a person fails to comply with a direction, contrary to regulation 51(4).

This table is for illustrative purposes only. It should be read in conjunction with the Regulations.

Full details of the Civil Penalties for EU ETS Aviation can be found in Part 5 of The Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations 2009 and Part 8 of The Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations 2010.

Resources

Who are the member states?

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Reunion, The Azores, Madeira, The Canary Islands, Aland Islands, Saint Martin (French), Akrotiri and Dhekelia

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Start your trip right.

Join forces with over 8,200 flight departments who already trust and depend on Colt International for fuel, trip support, and insurance.

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